[[1]] For a listing of the inscriptional evidence which provides Maximianus Herculius' full name, see A.H.M. Jones, J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, [Cambridge, 1971], s.v. "M. Aur. Val. Maximianus signo Herculius 8," 1.573-574.

For a listing of the evidence that discusses Herculius' heritage and family life, see ibid., and T.D. Barnes, New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine, (Cambridge, 1981), 32ff

[[2]]The exact dating of thedies imperii of Maximianus Herculius is a matter of scholarly contention. For example, while the authors of the PLRE date Herculius' Caesarship to 285/6 and his elevation to the rank of Augustus to March 286 (1.574), Barnes dates the Caesarship to July 285 and the elevation to Augustus to April of the next year(New Empire, 4, nn. 5-6). For a discussion of the present state of the debate, see Kienast(Dietmar Kienast, Römische Kaisertabelle, [Darmstadt, 1990], 268ff).

For a discussion of the details surrounding the foundation of the "Tetrarchy," see T.D. Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius (Cambridge, 1981), 8ff.

For a listing of the sources which treat the marriage of Constantius to Theodora and Constantine to Fausta, see Barnes, New Empire, 33ff, 35ff.

[[3]]For a reconstruction of Maximianus' miltary campaigns during his reign, see idem, Constantine and Eusebius, 8ff, 15ff;for a complete listing of Maximianus' residences during his reign, his movements, and the sources that treat them, see idem(New Empire, 56ff); Kienast does much the same thing in briefer compass (Dietmar Kienast, Römische Kaisertabelle,268ff).

[[4]]The "Great Persecution" is discussed by Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 17ff, Wm Ensslin, RE 7, s.v. "Valerius (Diocletianus) (142)," col.2484.47ff, and B.J. Kidd, A History of the Church to A.D. 461,(Oxford, 1922), 1.515ff

[[5]]The abdications of Maximianus Herculius and Diocletian are discussed, for example, by Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 29ff, and idem, RE 7, col. 2490.32ff.

[[6]]The rise of Maxentius and Maximianus' return to power are discussed by Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, 30ff, E Groag, RE 14, s.v. "Maxentius," col. 2422.35ff,, 2426.6ff, 2430.48ff, 2437.60ff, 2445.55ff, Ensslin, RE 14, col 2511.44ff, 2523.1ff, and idem, RE 7, col. 2491.60ff, ; for a discussion of the chronology of this chain of events and the sources that treat it, see Barnes, New Empire, 59ff, 64ff, 69ff.

[[7]]Elsewhere I and Arnold have have written. " For a discussion of the various theories about Maximianus' plots against Constantine I, see W. Huss, "Das Ende des Maximianus," in Latomus, 37(1978), pp. 719ff; the best introduction to the sources which treat Herculius' last days remains Moreau's commentary on Lactantius De mortibus persecutorum(J Moreau [ed.], De la mort des persécuteurs, Paris, 1954, II, pp. 366ff.)." (Michael DiMaio and Duane Arnold, "Per Vim, Per Caedem, Per Bellum: A Study of Murder and Ecclesiastical Politics in the Year 337 A.D.," Byzantion, 62[1992], 175, n.113)

One question crossed this author's mind while compiling this essay about Maximianus. Why did Herculius put himself through all of this at the end of his career when it was obvious to everyone that he was not wanted? The best answer was provided by Harold Mattingly and B.H. Warmington who have noted that Maximian was "...[U]neducated and rather stupid."(OCD,2 s.v. "Maximian," 657).